Many approaches have been proposed to enhance software productivity and reliability. These approaches typically fall into three categories: the engineering approach, the formal approach, and the knowledge-based approach. The optimal gain in software productivity cannot be obtained if one relies on only one of these approaches. Thus, the integration of different approaches has also become a major area of research.
Confectionery and chocolate manufacture has been dominated by large-scale industrial processing for several decades. It is often the case though, that a trial and error approach is applied to the development of new products and processes, rather than verified scientific principles.
Confectionery and Chocolate Engineering: Principles and Applications, Second edition, adds to information presented in the first edition on essential topics such as food safety, quality assurance, sweets for special nutritional purposes, artizan chocolate, and confectioneries. In addition, information is provided on the fading memory of viscoelastic fluids, which are briefly discussed in terms of fractional calculus, and gelation as a second order phase transition. Chemical operations such as inversion, caramelization, and the Maillard reaction, as well as the complex operations includingÂ conching, drying, frying, baking, and roasting used in confectionery manufacture are also described.
This book provides food engineers, scientists, technologists and students in research, industry, and food and chemical engineering-related courses with a scientific, theoretical description and analysis of confectionery manufacturing, opening up new possibilities for process and product improvement, relating to increased efficiency of operations, the use of new materials, and new applications for traditional raw materials.
Computer science graduates often find software engineering knowledge and skills are more in demand after they join the industry. However, given the lecture-based curriculum present in academia, it is not an easy undertaking to deliver industry-standard knowledge and skills in a software engineering classroom as such lectures hardly engage or convince students. Overcoming Challenges in Software Engineering Education: Delivering Non-Technical Knowledge and Skills combines recent advances and best practices to improve the curriculum of software engineering education. This book is an essential reference source for researchers and educators seeking to bridge the gap between industry expectations and what academia can provide in software engineering education.
Grounded Theory (GT) has been used extensively in management, organizational studies and 'caring professions' such as in psychology, education and the medical profession. But outside these areas, GT is often mistakenly associated with qualitative research traditions such as action research or ethnography. This book demystifies GT for language teachers and researchers. Issues related to epistemology and similar qualitative methodologies will be addressed in order to dispel some of the misconceptions of GT in the TESOL community. Real life examples of how GT is used in the field will help to illustrate a number of opportunities and challenges that are frequently encountered. A distinguishing feature of this book is the linking of GT to ways in which it can generate deeper insight and suggest new ways to address issues in the classrooms and institutions of language teachers. Issues related to disseminating findings, ethical considerations and potential future developments of GT will also be discussed.
Integrated Mechanics Knowledge Essential for Any Engineer Introduction to Engineering Mechanics: A Continuum Approach, Second Edition uses continuum mechanics to showcase the connections between engineering structure and design and between solids and fluids and helps readers learn how to predict the effects of forces, stresses, and strains. The authors' "continuum checklist" provides a framework for a wide variety of problems in solid and fluid mechanics. The essence of continuum mechanics, the internal response of materials to external loading, is often obscured by the complex mathematics of its formulation. By gradually building the formulations from one-dimensional to two- and three-dimensional, the authors help students develop a physical intuition for solid and fluid behavior and for the very interesting behavior of those materials including many biomaterials, between these extremes. This text is an accessible first introduction to the mechanics of all engineering materials, and incorporates a wide range of case studies highlighting the relevance of the technical content in societal, historical, ethical, and global contexts. It also offers a useful perspective for engineers concerned with biomedical, civil, chemical, mechanical, or other applications. New in the Second Edition: The latest edition contains significantly more examples, problems, and case studies than the first edition. The 22 chapters in this text: * Define and present the template for the continuum approach * Introduce strain and stress in one dimension, develop a constitutive law, and apply these concepts to the simple case of an axially loaded bar * Extend the concepts to higher dimensions by introducing the Poisson's ratio and strain and stress tensors * Apply the continuum sense of solid mechanics to problems including torsion, pressure vessels, beams, and columns * Make connections between solid and fluid mechanics, introducing properties of fluids and strain rate tensor * Address fluid statics * Consider applications in fluid mechanics * Develop the governing equations in both control volume and differential forms * Emphasize real-world design applications Introduction to Engineering Mechanics: A Continuum Approach, Second Edition provides a thorough understanding of how materials respond to loading: how solids deform and incur stress and how fluids flow. It introduces the fundamentals of solid and fluid mechanics, illustrates the mathematical connections between these fields, and emphasizes their diverse real-life applications. The authors also provide historical context for the ideas they describe and offer hints for future use.
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